Pharmacology Antibiotics #9

Question

The nurse is caring for a patient with HIV who is diagnosed with pneumocystis carinii and will anticipate administering which medication?

Answers

  1. Sulfamethoxazole
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because pneumocystis carinii is a pneumonia infection most often found in patients with HIV. This is an opportunistic infection that occurs due to the immunocompromised state of the patient with HIV.

  2. Zidovudine
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because zidovudine is a prophylactic medication given to protect the patient from opportunistic infections. This medication would be given before the patient has pneumocystis carinii, not to treat the infection.

  3. Penicillin.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because penicillin is not used to treat pneumocystis carinii. It is not effective to treat this specific bacteria.

  4. Nevirapine
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because nevirapine is a medication used to treat and prevent HIV, not to treat opportunistic infections. Pneumocystis carinii is a pneumonia infection most often found in patients with HIV. This is an opportunistic infection that occurs due to the immunocompromised state of the patient with HIV.

Overview

Pneumocystis carinii is an infection associated with HIV due to immunodeficiency. Sulfamethoxazole is the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for pneumocystis carinii.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Pneumocystis carinii is a pneumonia infection most often found in patients with HIV. This is an opportunistic infection that occurs due to the immunocompromised state of the patient with HIV.
It is also used for gram negative and gram positive bacterial infections. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim to treat conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTI), conjunctivitis, toxoplasmosis, and malaria. The medication should be avoided if the patient is allergic to sulfa.

Test Taking Tip

Immunocompromised patients have a lot in common, even though their diseases or conditions may be very different. Remember their needs to avoid infectious people, monitoring for infection (reporting sore throat, fever), decreased white blood cell levels, etc. Regardless of the reasons why they are immunocompromised they have great similarities.

Video Rationale