Patho Patho #34

Question

A client with acute kidney injury is at highest risk for which electrolyte imbalance?

Answers

  1. 1. Hypophosphatemia
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because clients with acute kidney injury places clients at increased risk for hyperphosphatemia.

  2. 2. Hypercalcemia
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because acute kidney injury places clients at increased risk for hypocalcemia.

  3. 3. Hyperkalemia
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because acute kidney injury places clients at increased risk for hyperkalemia due to acidosis and decreased ability to filter potassium.

  4. 4. Hypomagnesemia
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because, although acute kidney injury increases the risk for hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia is the highest risk for clients with acute kidney injury.

Overview

Acute kidney injury affects the kidneys’ abilities to filter waste products and electrolytes for elimination via the urine. When injured, the kidneys are also unable to produce and retain bicarbonate as effectively leading to an acidotic state and retention of excess H+ ions. The acidotic state in addition to the kidneys decreased filtering abilities, lead to retention of potassium and hyperkalemia.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

The focus of this question is asking the nurse to determine which electrolyte imbalance a client with acute kidney injury is at highest risk for. In addition to hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia, acute kidney injury places clients at increased risk for development of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia can lead to potential complications such as dysrhythmias and must be recognized and reversed in clients with acute kidney dysfunction.

Test Taking Tip

Calcium and phosphorus have an inverse relationship. If one is elevated the other will be decreased. Phosphorus will be elevated in acute kidney injury therefore placing the client at risk for hypocalcemia.

Video Rationale