Patho Patho #10

Question

Which type of IV fluid replacement is best for a client who is being treated for severe hypovolemia?

Answers

  1. 0.9% sodium chloride
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because 0.9% sodium chloride is the IV fluid of choice used to replace lost volumes in clients with significant hypovolemia. This type of IV fluid is most often chosen because it is readily available and cost effective.

  2. Dextrose 5% in water
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because 5% dextrose is not used in emergency situations to treat hypovolemia. 5% dextrose converts to a hypotonic solution once infused into a client’s system.

  3. 0.45% sodium chloride
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because 0.45% sodium chloride is a hypotonic IV solution and is not used in emergency situations to treat clients with significant hypovolemia or dehydration.

  4. 3% sodium chloride
    • Rationale:

      This answer choice is not correct because 3% sodium chloride is a hypertonic IV solution and is not used in emergency situations to treat clients with significant hypovolemia. Hypertonic IV solutions are most used to replace low Na+ or dextrose levels.

Overview

Isotonic IV fluids are used for fluid replacement in emergency situations for clients with severe dehydration/ hypovolemia. 0.9% sodium chloride is the most commonly used isotonic IV fluid of choice.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

IV fluids are classified into three major categories: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic. The two most commonly used isotonic IV fluids are 0.9% sodium chloride and lactated ringers. 0.9% sodium chloride is used in emergency situations to replace lost volumes in clients with clinical manifestations of severe hypovolemia.

Test Taking Tip

0.9% is baseline concentration for solutes within IV fluids. If an IV fluid has a higher concentration of solutes then it is considered hypertonic; if an IV fluid has a lower concentration of solutes, most often it will be considered hypotonic.

Video Rationale