Medical Surgical Pernicious anemia #1

Question

The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with pernicious anemia. The nurse understands which of the following about pernicious anemia?

Answers

  1. Pernicious anemia is when there is damage to the hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because damage to the hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow is the definition of aplastic anemia. The damage to the hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow is by unknown reason.

  2. Pernicious anemia results from inadequate iron supplementation caused by chronic blood loss.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because inadequate iron supplementation by chronic blood loss is iron deficient anemia. This is seen in young women with heavy menses or the older population with blood loss from a GI ulcer.

  3. Pernicious anemia is caused by the client's inability to produce intrinsic factor (IF).
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because with pernicious anemia, the body is unable to produce intrinsic factor, which binds vitamin B12 to be absorbed in the intestines. This is usually caused by an autoimmune process and seen in those with diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, and Graves’ disease. Pernicious anemia raises the risk of stomach cancer.

  4. Pernicious anemia is a consequence of poor diet intake and alcoholism.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because dietary deficiencies can cause iron deficiency anemia, not pernicious anemia. Alcoholism causes a B12 deficiency.

Overview

Pernicious anemia is caused by an autoimmune process that makes a client unable to produce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor binds vitamin B12 so that it can be absorbed in the intestines.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Pernicious anemia is caused by an autoimmune process that makes a client unable to produce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor binds vitamin B12 so it can be absorbed in the intestines. It is seen in clients with diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease and Graves’ disease. Pernicious anemia raises the risk of stomach cancer. Aplastic anemia is damage to the hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow by unknown reason. Iron deficient anemia is inadequate iron supplementation by chronic blood loss typically seen in young women with heavy menses or the older population with blood loss from a GI ulcer. Dietary deficiencies and alcoholism can cause a deficiency in B12.

Test Taking Tip

Knowing the differences in iron deficient anemia and pernicious anemia is imperative to answer these questions appropriately.

Video Rationale