Medical Surgical Parathyroid #4

Question

A client recently diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism is given which teaching to help reduce symptoms associated with the condition?

Answers

  1. Increase water intake
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because the client has hyperparathyroidism, they also have hypercalcemia so the kidneys have to filter all the blood with the extra calcium so kidney stones form. The client with hyperparathyroidism should be taught to increase water consumption to help flush the kidneys, calcium, and the kidney stones that form out of the body.

  2. Take loperamide daily
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because loperamide is given for diarrhea to slow the peristalsis. Hyperparathyroidism causes constipation so loperamide is contraindicated for this client.

  3. Increase calcium with vitamin D
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because hyperparathyroidism produces increased calcium in the blood so calcium and vitamin D are not indicated. The body already has too much calcium, so it is contraindicated to add more due to the side effects of hypercalcemia.

  4. Perform high-impact exercise
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because since the bones are releasing so much calcium, osteoporosis occurs. This makes the bones less dense and more brittle. Weight-bearing, high-impact exercises are not recommended to keep the client from having fractures.

Overview

Clients with hyperparathyroidism are taught to increase fluid intake to reduce the impact of kidney stones on the client. Kidney stones are a common occurrence with clients with hyperparathyroidism so fluids are encouraged to help flush the kidneys.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition where the body produces too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is instrumental in regulating and balancing phosphorus and calcium. When the individual has hyperparathyroidism, they also have hypercalcemia. Calcium levels will be over 10.5 mg/dL in hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism. Symptoms associated with hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia include bone pain, urolithiasis (kidney stones), and constipation. The kidneys have to filter all the blood with the extra calcium, so kidney stones form with hyperparathyroidism. The client with hyperparathyroidism should be taught to increase water consumption to help flush the kidneys, calcium, and the kidney stones that form out of the body.

Test Taking Tip

Remember the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia by the saying of “moans, groans, and stones”: Bone pain (moans), constipation (groans), and stones (kidney stones).

Video Rationale