Medical Surgical Myocardial Infarction #1

Question

A client with coronary artery disease (CAD) requires education on risk factors that can be controlled or modified. Which of the risk factors will the nurse indicate that are controllable or modifiable?

Answers

  1. Gender, obesity, family history, and smoking
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because gender and family history are not controllable or modifiable risk factors for CAD. The controllable or modifiable risk factors include stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking.

  2. Genetics, smoking, inactivity, and gender
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because genetics and gender are not controllable or modifiable risk factors for CAD. The controllable or modifiable risk factors include stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking.

  3. Drinking alcohol, stress, gender, and smoking
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because gender is not a controllable or modifiable risk factor for CAD. The controllable or modifiable risk factors include stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking.

  4. Obesity, inactivity, diet, and smoking
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because clients should be taught the controllable or modifiable risk factors for CAD, including stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking. This will help prevent the most common cause of CAD, atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of cholesterol and other substances that can narrow the arteries and decrease blood supply in the arteries.

Overview

Stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking. are controllable and modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). The nurse should educate the client regarding these factors.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is caused by damaged or diseased coronary and other arteries. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of cholesterol and other substances that adhere to the cell wall may narrow arteries and affect arterial dilation and expansion due to the ability to carry blood supply resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherosclerosis in the arteries that causes plaque in the arteries can eventually occlude the artery and reduce or eliminate blood flow to the heart and other vessels. This blockage of blood flow to the heart can produce myocardial infarction that leads to death of myocardial tissue. Then that part of the heart does not function properly so the decreased ability to contract and move myocardial blood through the heart properly leads to heart failure. Clients should be taught the modifiable/controllable risk factors for CAD, including stress, obesity, inactivity, diet (including alcohol intake), and smoking.

Test Taking Tip

“Modifiable” risk factors are things the client has control over, such as smoking, poor diet, stress, and inactivity. “Non-modifiable” risk factors include things the client has absolutely no control over, such as family history, gender, and genetics.

Video Rationale