Medical Surgical Multiple Sclerosis MS #1

Question

A client is concerned about having multiple sclerosis (MS). The nurse determines that the client has which of these assessment findings characteristic of MS? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Tremors of large and small muscle groups.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because the most common type of tremor in MS is intention tremor. This tremor affects large and small muscle groups. It worsens as you use the muscle. It is also called cerebellar tremor.

  2. Progressive weakness in extremities.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because the disruption in communication between the nerve cells and the brain slows down, causing more difficulty in moving the muscle. Due to fatigue and pain associated with MS, the client may become inactive and inactivity causes weakness in muscles as well. This makes exercise especially important in the treatment of MS.

  3. Double vision.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because double vision is a common symptom of MS due to optic neuritis. Inflammation to the optic nerve causes diplopia. Treatment indicated for double vision in MS clients are intravenous steroids with possible oral steroids to follow.

  4. Sudden strength and burst of hyperactivity.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct due to the weakness and loss of muscular tone associated with MS. Unfortunately, strength and hyperactivity are less likely to occur.

  5. Bowel and bladder dysfunction.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because loss of control of bowels, constipation, and bladder dysfunction is a particular concern among clients with MS. The loss of coordination control can lead to bladder issues and the lack of mobility causes sluggish bowels.

Overview

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that affects the brain and spinal cord. Tremors, weakness in extremities, visual disturbances, and loss of muscular tone causing bowel and bladder dysfunction may occur with MS.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Multiple sclerosis is disease of the central nervous system that affects the brain and spinal cord by damaging the myelin sheath. It is also known as encephalomyelitis disseminata. It is autoimmune in nature. The myelin sheath surrounds and protects the nerve cells. Damage to the myelin sheath results in faulty communication between these nerves and the brain. Tremors, weakness in extremities, visual disturbances, and loss of muscular tone may occur with MS. Diplopia can occur when the nerves that control your eye movement become damaged.

Test Taking Tip

When thinking about the symptoms of MS, consider that “MS” stands for myelin sheath. This is what is damaged due to an autoimmune response. Autoimmune diseases more commonly occur in women or the “MS”.

Video Rationale