Medical Surgical Hyperaldosteronism #2

Question

Which is/are the goal(s) of treatment for the client of hyperaldosteronism? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Decrease fluid volume
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because hyperaldosteronism has increased fluid volume associated with hypernatremia. The goal of treatment is to decrease this fluid volume because it causes too much pressure within the blood vessels, which can cause hypertension and the risk for stroke. The excessive fluid can also cause or worsen heart failure.

  2. Decrease sodium
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because hyperaldosteronism causes hypernatremia. Therefore, one of the goals of treatment includes decreasing the level of sodium in the body.

  3. Decrease potassium
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because hypokalemia is a serious problem associated with hyperaldosteronism. The blood level should not be decreased further or it could cause serious heart arrhythmias.

  4. Increase calcium
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because hyperaldosteronism does not affect the calcium in the body significantly. Therefore, a goal of therapy is not to increase calcium.

  5. Increase pH level
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because hyperaldosteronism causes metabolic alkalosis (increased pH). Therefore, it is not a goal of treatment to increase pH further; rather, to decrease pH.

Overview

The goals of treatment for hyperaldosteronism are to decrease fluid volume, decrease sodium levels, increase potassium levels, and decrease pH of the blood. These goals are due to the increased fluid volume, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and increased pH (metabolic alkalosis).

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Hyperaldosteronism is a condition of the endocrine system where one or both adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone hormone. Aldosterone is an endocrine steroid hormone that’s main role in the body is to regulate water and salt, therefore a huge regulator of blood pressure. Too much aldosterone can produce extreme blood pressure in the body. Other effects of hyperaldosteronism is it causes hypokalemia (loss of potassium), hypernatremia (too much sodium), and increased water retention, causing increased blood volume. Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism include headache, confusion, polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue, weakness, and muscle cramps. Symptoms can worsen due to the hypokalemia, hypernatremia, water retention that causes increased blood volume, and produce dangerous conditions including metabolic alkalosis, heart failure, seizures, cardiac failure, and stroke. The goal of treatment for hyperaldosteronism is to decrease fluid volume, decrease sodium levels, increase potassium levels, and decrease pH of the blood.

Test Taking Tip

Understanding how hyperaldosteronism affects levels in the body is important to being able to answer this question correctly.

Video Rationale