Medical Surgical Glomerulonephritis and Nephrosis #3

Question

A client is admitted to the hospital with severe edema and is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. The nurse will monitor the client for which additional symptom? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Hypoalbuminemia.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because hypoalbuminemia (i.e., low serum albumin levels) is a hallmark sign of nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.

  2. Pulmonary edema.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because profound edema occurs throughout the body which increases the client’s risk for pulmonary edema to develop. Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.

  3. Flat jugular veins.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because signs of profound edema may occur for the client who is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and includes jugular vein distension (JVD) instead of flat jugular veins.

  4. Proteinuria.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because pronounced proteinuria occurs with this syndrome as the damaged glomeruli allow 3 grams or more of protein to leak into the urine when measured over a 24-hour period, which is more than 20 times the amount that healthy glomeruli allow.

  5. Weight gain.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because weight gain with fluid retention and swelling is common with nephrotic syndrome due to the damage to the glomeruli. Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.

Overview

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage. Nephrotic syndrome causes albuminuria (e.g., proteinuria), hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Nephrotic syndrome causes albuminuria (e.g., proteinuria), hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia. General symptoms of renal failure should be monitored in the provision of client care. Pulmonary edema may also occur and the nurse should observe for dyspnea and crackles. The client must be on strict sodium restriction due to the fluid retention.

Test Taking Tip

Consider the pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome to determine clinical manifestations that are expected in the provision of client care.

Video Rationale