Medical Surgical DKA vs HHS #3

Question

A client with diabetes mellitus type 1 admitted with DKA asks the nurse, “What causes DKA to happen?” The nurse correctly explains which common causes of DKA? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Not taking oral antiglycemic medications
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because it is not caused by the type 1 diabetic client not taking their antiglycemic medications because type 1 diabetics do not take oral antiglycemic medications. Insulin is the medication treatment for the type 1 diabetic clients.

  2. Personal stress, such as starting college
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because personal stress, such as starting college, can cause the blood glucose to rise and cause DKA. More insulin should be given during this time. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin.

  3. A recent, serious infection
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because a recent, serious infection, such as sepsis, can cause the blood glucose to rise and cause DKA. More insulin should be given during this time. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin.

  4. Having a recent stomach virus
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because having an illness, such a stomach virus, can cause the blood glucose to rise and cause DKA. More insulin should be given during this time. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin.

  5. Taking too much regular insulin
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because the lack of insulin (not taking too much) is what causes DKA to occur. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin.

Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs when ketones or blood acids increase in the bloodstream in response to elevated blood glucose levels and inadequate insulin. DKA can occur due to illness, infection, or insufficient insulin. The client with DKA has symptoms including extreme thirst, nausea, abdominal cramping, fruity (acetone) breath, frequent urination, and confusion. The blood glucose is extremely elevated and ketones are found in the blood and urine. The client has to be treated in the hospital and often in the ICU to address the metabolic acidosis. Priority treatments are fluid replacement, insulin therapy, and electrolyte correction.

Test Taking Tip

Remember the 4 S’s of DKA: Stress, Sickness, Skipping insulin, and Sepsis.

Video Rationale