Medical Surgical Diabetes #2

Question

The nurse is discussing complications of diabetes with a client. Which condition is the most common microvascular complication associated with diabetes?

Answers

  1. Myocardial infarction
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because myocardial infarction is a macrovascular (not a microvascular) complication of diabetes. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels contribute to this complication. The diabetic client should be assessed carefully since subject symptoms could be absent or less severe. This is due to the nerve tissue damage which reflects and causes the client to feel pain damage. The diabetic should be sure to notify all health care providers of the history of diabetes.

  2. Ketoacidosis
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because ketoacidosis is not a microvascular complication of diabetes. Ketoacidosis is a complication associated with uncontrolled, elevated blood glucose levels which can cause the client to need to be admitted to the hospital and often, the ICU. This is because the metabolic acidosis occurring in the body can become life-threatening quickly for the diabetic.

  3. Metabolic syndrome
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because metabolic syndrome is a syndrome that includes high blood sugar, but is not a microvascular complication of diabetes, but a macrovascular complication. A person with metabolic syndrome has hypertension, high levels of blood glucose, truncal obesity, and increased cholesterol levels. This syndrome increases the person’s risk of stroke and heart attack.

  4. Diabetic retinopathy
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication associated with diabetes and must be monitored closely. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in the diabetic. Diabetic retinopathy is damage that occurs to the microvascular vessels within the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue of the back of the eye. In the beginning, there may be no to little symptoms of diabetic retinopathy, but later blindness can occur. A dilated fundus examination every 6 months by an eye health provider is strongly encouraged for all diabetics to watch for changes in the retina.

Overview

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication associated with diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in the diabetic. Diabetic retinopathy is damage that occurs to the microvascular vessels within the retina.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in the diabetic. Diabetic retinopathy is damage that occurs to the microvascular vessels within the retina. (Microvascular complications are from small vascular injury such as retinopathy and neuropathy while macrovascular injury involves larger blood vessels of the body.) The retina is the light-sensitive tissue of the back of the eye. In the beginning, there may be no to little symptoms of diabetic retinopathy, but later blindness can occur. A dilated fundus examination every 6 months by an eye health provider is strongly encouraged for all diabetics to watch for changes in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication associated with diabetes and must be monitored closely.

Test Taking Tip

When considering microvascular complications versus macrovascular complication associated with diabetes, remember: Micro=small vessels damage such as to the retina and peripheral vessels (retinopathy and neuropathy) and Macro= large vessels damage such as to the coronary vessels (atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction).

Video Rationale