Medical Surgical Diabetes #19

Question

A nurse works in a walk-in clinic. What client is at a greater risk for the development of Type 2 diabetes? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Client with low blood pressure and heart rate
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because hypertension and heart disease, not hypotension or bradycardia, is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Other associations include PCOS, obesity, and being Native Hawaiian, Native American, Hispanic American, and non-Hispanic Black.

  2. Native Hawaiian client with family history of diabetes
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because being Native Hawaiian, Native American, Hispanic American, and non-Hispanic Black makes a client more susceptible. A family history of diabetes further increases the risk of developing diabetes.

  3. Client with polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because clients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at risk for developing diabetes because of the hyperandrogenic effects and insulin resistance. Obesity in females with PCOS further increases the risks for diabetes.

  4. Client with body mass index of 22
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because a body mass index (BMI) of 22 is within healthy body weight. BMI and obesity plays a role in development of diabetes type 2. BMI > 25 and higher indicates overweight, while BMI of > 30 signifies obesity, and may play a role in development of Type 2 diabetes.

  5. A client with a high HDL level
    • Rationale:

      This answer is incorrect because low levels of HDL are associated with increased risk of diabetes due to HDL stimulating pancreatic cell insulin secretion. High HDL levels are good. HDL levels greater than 60 mg/dL are high and less than 40 mg/dL are low.

Overview

Type 2 diabetes has an ethnic, genetic, familial component, making certain groups more susceptible. Native Hawaiians, clients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and clients with a family history are at high risk of developing diabetes.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Type 2 diabetes has an ethnic, genetic familial component, making certain groups more susceptible. Native Hawaiians are twice as likely to develop diabetes as other ethnic groups living in Hawaii and four times more likely to die of stroke. Having a genetic familial factor would further increase risks for developing diabetes. Clients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at risk of developing diabetes because of the hyperandrogenic effects and insulin resistance. Obesity in females with PCOS further increases the risks for diabetes.

Test Taking Tip

Understanding risk factors is important because it crosses over to prevention and client education. Susceptible groups, whether related to controllable or uncontrollable risks, need to be educated on ways to do what they can to reduce risks and complications. Know susceptible groups for certain conditions.

Video Rationale