Medical Surgical CNS vs PNS #2

Question

Which neurotransmitter from both the central and peripheral nervous system diffuses sodium to create electrical impulses that are responsible for muscle action in the body and is also involved in thought, learning and memory?

Answers

  1. Adrenaline
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because adrenaline is a neurotransmitter from the peripheral nervous system. It is produced during alarming situations and activates the “fight or flight” system.

  2. Acetylcholine
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because acetylcholine activates muscle action in the body by diffusing sodium into the muscle cells. It is also involved in thought, learning and memory. It functions in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  3. Dopamine
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because dopamine regulates cognition, motor control and mood from the central nervous system. It is known as the “pleasure” or “reward” neurotransmitter.

  4. Glutamate
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter from both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in learning, memory and the creation of nerve contacts.

Overview

Acetylcholine is a central and peripheral nervous system neurotransmitter that transmits nerve impulses for voluntary muscle contraction. It diffuses sodium into the muscle cell for movement and is also involved in thought, learning, and memory.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Acetylcholine activates muscle action in the body by diffusing sodium into the muscle cells. This causes the muscles to contract. It also plays a critical role in memory and cognition. It supports strengthening or weakening of signals between neurons through the hippocampus. This creates malleability to mold learning and memory. It functions in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Imbalances in this chemical messenger are linked to conditions such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease.

Test Taking Tip

Know the chief neurotransmitters and their functions.

Video Rationale