Medical Surgical Bladder cancer and cystoscopy #1

Question

A client with a history of smoking is diagnosed with bladder cancer and asks the nurse what the risk factors are for this type of cancer. The nurse includes which risk factors for the development of bladder cancer in response to the client? Select all that apply.

Answers

  1. Previous history of cancer and treatment with cytoxan.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because chemo-toxic agents, including cytoxan which is a medication used to treat certain types of cancer, increases the client’s risk for developing bladder cancer. Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder.

  2. Drinking too many fluids during a period of time.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is not correct because drinking too many fluids is not a risk factor for bladder cancer; however, drinking less than the body requires over time may increase chances for this type of cancer since less fluid intake means less emptying the bladder, which could keep toxins and chemicals lingering in the bladder.

  3. Family history of bladder cancer.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because genetics, including a family history of bladder cancer, increases the client’s risk for developing this type of cancer at some point within his or her lifetime. Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder.

  4. Smoking.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because smoking is one of the most common links with bladder cancer. Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder.

  5. Being of the male gender.
    • Rationale:

      This answer is correct because bladder cancer is much more common in men than in women. Unfortunately, this is a risk factor that cannot be changed.

Overview

The bladder is a hollow muscular organ that is located in the lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder.

Explanation

Learning Outcomes

Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Factors that increase risk of having bladder cancer include smoking, genetics, and previous exposure to chemo-toxic agents like cytoxan and aromatic amines such as benzidine found in the dye industry. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine (i.e., hematuria).

Test Taking Tip

Consider the pathophysiology of bladder cancer to answer this question correctly.

Video Rationale